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You may have noticed that all of the frameworks and libraries in the previous sections function with specific programming languages. That’s because frameworks serve as core foundations when developing either frontend or backend web apps; the pieces that hold those foundations together are the programming languages. Backend languages correlate directly with backend frameworks and help process backend workings like business logic, database calls, networking, image processing, and much more.

  • PHP: Perhaps one of the most well-known backend languages, PHP provides an all-encompassing, general scripting language for all sorts of web development. It interacts with the frontend language of HTML, but differently from how JavaScript interacts. It’s available for all major operating systems, offers error reporting, is secure, and gives the developer extreme control without using long lines of code.
  • Java: This server-side language was introduced in 1995, making it reliable for mobile apps, desktop apps, web servers, web apps, database connections, and more. Although many think Java is the predecessor, or in some way related, to JavaScript, they’re entirely different languages. When it comes to features, Java comes as a free, open source language, works on most major operating systems, and is somewhat secure, fast, and simple to use. It’s an object-oriented language for a manageable development environment, and many people switch to or from Java and C++ (or Java and C#) since the languages are so similar.
  • Python: Another mainstream server-side language is called Python. You can find Python implemented on apps and websites like Instagram, Facebook, Quora, and many other larger tech companies. Python works well for math, software development, scripting, and its more common use: backend web development. The whole point of Python is to improve readability, so it’s somewhat similar to the English language.
  • C++: Often taught in school for running mathematical functions, the C++ programming language also serves as a way to generate online applications, website elements, and high-performance calculations. As a popular (if not one of the most popular) programming languages, its backend use comes in handy for adapting to multiple platforms, reusing previously created programs, and integrating with just about any graphical user interface. Not to mention, C++ looks close to Java and C#, so people learning those languages will find it easy to jump from one language to another.









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